Ankara
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Course Con. 
UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME – COURSE CONTENTS Course Code and Name: AST101 History of Astronomy (mandatory) Credits : National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 3 Content: Definitions and conceptions (science,
history of science). Birth of science, eras, method of science. Astronomy;
study of field, connection of other natural sciences, universitality.
Astronomical studies in ancient era (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indian and Chinese
cosmology). Apparent motions of the celestial objects, constellations, basic
concepts in astronomy. Classical Greek civilization: Ionians (Thales,
Anaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras), Pythagoreans, school of Elea, other
ideas, Hellenic period (Socrates, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Heraclides),
Hellenitic period (Euclid, Aristarchus, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus).
GrecoRoman period, Dark ages (Ptolemy). Islamic Astronomy (in Baghdad):
Habeþ elHasib, Harezmi, Fergani, Sabit Bin Kurra, El Battani, El Sufi, Ebül
Vefa). Islamic Astronomy: Ýbni Yunus, El Heysem, El Biruni, Ýbni Sina, El
Zerkali, Ö. Hayyam. Semerkant Observatory and astronomy in Ottomans.
Renaissance period; the scholastics (Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galilei,
Huygens). Halley, Newton. Classical mechanics after Newton and nature of
light, understanding of properties of the stars (parallax, spectrum,
observations of variable stars). Turkish astronomy in republic era. Course Code and Name: FIZ101 Physics I (mandatory) Credits : National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8 Content: (Mechanics) Physics and measurements, vectors. One dimensional motion,
instantanous velocity, acceleration, one dimensional motion under constant
acceleration, feely falling bodies. Two dimensional motion, Laws of motion,
circular motion and Newton’s laws of motion. Motion in accelerated systems,
friction. Work, power and energy, potential and kinetic energy, conservation
of energy. Momentum and collisions. Rotational and orbital motion, moment of
inertia, movement of rolling bodies, angular momentum and tork. Stable equilibrium
and elasticity. Oscillatory motion. Universal law of gravitation. Fluid
mechanics. Course Code and Name: FIZ151 Physics Lab. I (mandatory) Credits : National: 1 (0,2,0), ECTS: 3 Content: Measurement of lengths. Error calculation
and significant numbers. Length measurements with vernier caliper. The
accuracy and precision of a measurement. Motion on inclined plane. Distance
vs. time and acceleration vs. time relations, unit analysis. Pendulum, simple
harmonic oscillator. Complicated data and unit analysis. Impulse and
momentum. Conservation of momentum. Distance vs. time, velocity vs. time and
acceleration vs. time graphs. Rotational motion, centripetal force. Course Code and Name: MAT101 Mathematics I (mandatory) Credits : National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8 Content: Conic Sections, Numbers, Absolute Value,
Greatest Integer Value, Inequalities, the Concept of Function, Some Special
Functions, Some Simple Curve Sketching, Trigonometric Functions, Inverse
Trigonometric Functions, Exponential and Logarithmic Functions, Hyperbolic
and the Inverse Hyperbolic Functions, The Limit Concept, One Sided Limits,
Some Trigonometric Limits, The Concept of Continuity, Some Properties of the
Functions that are Continuous on the Closed Interval (Intermediate Value
Theorem, Bolzano’s Theorem, local maximum, minimum), The Derivative. General
Rules for Differentiation. Derivative of an Inverse Function, Derivatives of
Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions, Derivatives of Logarithmic
and Exponential Functions, Logarithmic Differentiation. Derivatives of
Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions.
Derivatives of Parametric Functions. Implicit Differentiation, Higher
Derivative. The Geometric Interpretation of the Derivative. Maximum, Minimum (IncreasingDecreasing
Functions, First Derivative Test for Local Extremums, Fermat’s Theorem,
Second Derivatives Test, MaximumMinimum Problems, Theorems Related with
Derivative (Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem, Generalized Mean Value
Theorem), Convex Functions, (Concavity, Inflection Points), Indetermined
Forms (L’Hospital’s Rule), Asymptotes, Curve Sketching. Parametric
Representations, The Concept of Differential, the Integral (the concept of
antiderivatives). Evaluation of Integrals (Integration by Substitution,
Integration by Parts), Reduction Formulas, Partial Fractions, Trigonometric
Integrals, The Integration of Irrational Functions. Course Code and Name: MAT113 Linear Algebra I (mandatory) Credits : National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Matrices and matrice operations, linear
transformations, elementary operations, elementary operations of parallel row
vectors of matrices, rank and invers of a matrix. Permutation concept.
Determinant function, rank of a determinant, rank of a linear transformation,
determinant of a linear transformation. Linear equation systems.
Characteristic polynom of matrix . Diagonalization. Motions in Euclidean
plane. Course Code and Name: AST102 Space Researches (mandatory) Credits : National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 3 Content: Modelling of nearby space.
Showing the distance of stars on this model. From where does the space begin
and why? History of space researches and space competition of countries.
Rockets and their properties. Orbits of the space vehicles and their return
back to earth. Benefits of space researches to daily life. Space vehicles
used in planet researches. Space pollution and the ways to prevent the
pollution. Space Tourism. Space Illnesses. The special clothes and food of
the astronauts. Planned space programmes. Course Code and Name: FIZ102 Physics II (mandatory) Credits : National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8 Content: (Electricity ve Magnetism) Electrostatic:
charges and fields, conductors and insulators. Coulomb’s Law, Gauss’ Law.
Electric potential and potential difference, capasitors and dielectrics.
Current and resistivity, superconductors, DC circuits, resistances in serial
and parallel. Kirchoff’s rules, RC circuits, magnetic fields, movements of
charges in magnetic fields, sources of magnetic fields, BiotSavart Law,
Ampère’s Law, Faraday’s Law, Lenz’s Law, inductance, AC circuits.
Electromagnetic waves. Course Code and Name: FIZ152 Physics Lab. II (mandatory) Credits : National: 1 (0,2,0), ECTS: 3 Content: Measurements of current and potential. Ohm
law. Kirchhoff rules. Coulomb balance.
Resistance of a tungusten filament bulb and semiconductor diod. Circular
electrodes. Imaginary charges. Acceleration and deflection of electrons.
Temperature dependence of resistors and thermistors. Measurement of
alternating potentials using oscilloscope. Course Code and Name: MAT102 Mathematics II (mandatory) Credits : National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8 Content: Definite integral (Fundamental Theorem of
Integral Calculus, The Derivative of Integral, Mean Value Theorem), Some
Application of Integrals (Areas by Integration), Volumes by the Method of
Cross Sections, Solids of Revolution Disks, Volumes by the Method of
Cylindrical Shells, Improper Integrals (I and II. Types) Tests For Convergence
of the Improper Integrals for types I and II, Polar Coordinates, Sketching
Plane Curves, Area and Arc Length Computations in Polar Coordinates.
Sequences, The Convergence of Sequences,. Series. Convergence tests for
series with positive terms (Comparison test, Limit Comparison test, Integral
Test, Root Test), Alternating Series, Power Series, Taylor Series, Functions
with Several Variables. Limits and Continuity, Partial Derivatives. The Chain
Rule, Transformations of Regions. Double Integrals, Applications of Double
Integrals, Triple Integrals. Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates,
Applications of Triple Integrals. Course Code and Name: MAT114 Linear Algebra II (mandatory) Credits : National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Vector space concept. Vectors on plane.
Vectors on space. Subvector space. Linear dependence and linear independence
of a vector set. Properties of vector space’s bases. Dimensions of subspaces.
Direct sum, union space and intersect space Inner product, space with inner
product, orthonormal vector systems, GramSchmidt method, subspaces of spaces
with inner product, orthogonal complement. Linear transformations and
matrices, kernel and rank of a linear transformation. Dual space, dual base,
dual of a space, properties of dual space. Vectoral product in 3dimensional
space, properties of vectoral product, mixed product and its applications.
Motions in Euclidean 3Dspace. Course Code and Name: AST200 General Astronomy (elective  see the warning
below) Credits : National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 4 Content: WARNING: This
course is designed for the students studying at the departments other than
the Dept. of Astronomy and Space Sciences. Students of our department cannot
take this course. Modelling
the solar system and the universe. Distances to the stars. Constellations.
Why it is impossible to make fortunetelling using stars. What are UFOs? A
short history of astronomy. Definitions of coordinate systems used in
astronomy. General properties of planets. Space researches. General
properties of stars and their physical parameters. HertzsprungRussell
diagram and its interpretation. The structure of our galaxy and distribution
of stars within. Type of galaxies and their properties. Law of Hubble and the
Big Bang. Possible life forms in space and other solar systems. Course Code and Name: AST201 Astronomy I (mandatory) Credits : National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: The Diurnal Motion of the
celestial bodies, The definitions of horizon circle, meridian, latitude and
longitude of the observer on Earth. Diurnal motion of the Sun, the plane of
Ecliptic. The Diurnal motion of the Moon. Orbital motion and phases of the
Moon. Diurnal motion of the planets, Kepler’s Law, terrestial and jovian
planets. Coordinate systems (Horizon, hour, equatorial, ecliptic and galactic
coordinates). Time, hour angle of a star, equation of time, time zones,
sidereal year, tropical year, lunar year. Calendars (Julian, Gregorian and
Lunar calendars). The events that effect the celestial coordinates
(Refraction, parallax, aberration of light, precession and nutation). The
Earth; shape, size, mass, age, rotation and orbital motion around the Sun.
Stellar parallactic motions. The Moon; distance, size, mass, rotation and
orbital motion around the Earth. Course Code and Name: AST203 Observational Instruments
(mandatory) Credits : National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 4 Content: The Electromagnetic spectrum.
Principle Laws of Geometric Optic. Snell Laws. Plane paralel surfaces and
prisms. Critical angle and total reflection. Reflection and refraction on
plane parallel surfaces. Spherical surfaces, focal points and lengths, image
formation in spherical surfaces. Ray tracing; the parallel and oblique ray
methods, convention of signs, magnification, Gauss formulae. Lenses, lens
makers formula, combinations of lenses. Spherical mirros; image formation,
graphical construction and calculation, image formation in lens–mirror
systems, spherical aberrations in spherical mirrors. Lens aberrations;
spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, curvature of the field, image
distortionschromatic aberration. Telescopes; aperture, effective
transmission, type of telescopes, telescope mounts. Resolving power,
magnification and limiting magnitude of the telescopes. Spectrographs; angular
and linear dispersion, resolution. Prisms and gratings. Detectors and their
properties. Spectral sensivitiy. Course Code and Name: AST205 Computer Programming (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 6 Content: A brief history and properties of
computers, hardwares, softwares and their contents. Computer concepts
(desktop, taskbar etc.), directory and file concepts (forming, copying,
deleting, etc.). Algorithm concepts, counter techniques, repeat and control
structures in algorithm. Flowcharts and their symbols. Visual Basic setup,
objects and their properties. The variable concept, assigning name, assigning values, and data
types. Method of data entering using keyboard (InputBox and textbox).
Sequence of arithmetic processes, mathematical, alphanumerical, date, and
changing type of functions. Conditional structures (if and select
structures). Loop structures (for and do structures). Array variables, scope
of variables and lifetime. Subroutine concepts and user defined functions.
Data storage necessity and methods of storage. Data file processes, file
creation, write to file, read from file and deleting a record, deleting and
renaming files. Course Code and Name: AST207 Solar System (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 4 Content: Identifications,
classifications and sizes of the solar system members. Physical properties of
the solar system members. The terrestial and jovian planets. Formation
theories of the solar system. Bombardment process experience of the planetary
surfaces during the early formation stages. Orbits, internal structures,
surface properties and atmospheres of
the nine planets and their natural satellites in our solar system. Properties
of the magnetic fields and the magnetospheres of the planets and their
satellites. The Greenhouse effect in earth’s and other terrestial planets’
atmospheres. The Asteroids, the comets, the meteors and meteorides, the
interplanetary medium, the Oort Cloud and the Kuiper Belt. Extrasolar
planets. Course Code and Name: KÝM201 Chemistry I (mandatory) Credits : National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 4 Content: Introduction: The birth of
chemistry, it's place among the other natural sciences, branches,
measurement, calculation and unit systems, material and energy, Lavoisier's
law, Lavoisier yasasý, Dalton's atomic
theory, the law of constant proportions, the law of multiple proportions.
Chemical Calculations: Mole, finding the chemical formulas, oxidation,
reduction, oxidation and reduction numbers,
balancing reaction equations, calculations based on chemical
reactions. Atomic Structure: Material and energy, atomic structure and
developments in atomic theory, the electrical structure of material,
electrons, protons, atomic nucleus, neutrons. Periodic Table: Periodic law and the energy levels of the atom,
the electron arrangement of elements. Structure of the Nucleus: Atomic nucleus, radioactive decay, nuclear
fission and fusion, isotopes. Chemical Bondings: Chemical bond types, bond
characteristics, chemical bonding theories, Lewis formulas, hybridization,
resonance, formal charge and dipole moment. Gases: Physical properties of
gases, mole, volume, temperature, pressure effects on each other, the ideal
gas law, kinetic theory of gases. Course Code and Name: MAT223 Differential Equations (mandatory) Credits : National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 6 Content: Basic concepts, Classifying differential
equations, Order and degree, Solution, general solution, particular solution,
singular solution, Construction of differential equations, Initialvalue and
boundaryvaule problems, Separable equations, Homogeneous equations and
reducible equations to this form, Exact differential equations and
integrating factors, Linear equations, Bernoulli equations, Riccati equations,
Applications of first order differential equations, Orthogonal and isogonal
trajectories, Clairaut and Lagrange equations, Theory of linear differential
equations, Second order linear homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients, nthorder
linear homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients,
Nonhomogeneous equations and particular solutions, Euler equation, Second
order linear equations with variable
coefficients, Second order nonlinear equations, Laplace transform, Inverse
Laplace transform, Using Laplace transform to find solutions of linear
equations with constant coefficients and linear systems, Power series method
about an ordinary point, Frobenius method for a regular singular point. Course Code and Name: AST202 Astronomy II (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Electromagnetic spectrum,
spectrograph, stellar spectra, types of spectrum, radiation laws and
continuous spectrum (StefanBoltzmann, Wien and Planck Laws). Formation of
line series in a spectrum, Bohr atom model. The spectrum of hidrogen and
complex atoms. Stars; catalogues, distances, magnitudes. The spectral
classification of stars. The physical explanation of spectral properties;
Boltzman’s Law and Saha’s Law. Temperature of stars and the HR Diagram. The
Motion of Stars, proper motions, doppler shift and radial velocities. The
motion of the Sun through the stars. Binary Stars; visual, spectroscopic and
eclipsing binary stars. Star clusters, HR diagram of the cluster members,
open and globular star cluster, associations, stellar populations. Type of
variable stars and their properties. Basics of stellar evolution. Course Code and Name: AST204 Spherical Astronomy (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Determining the positions of
celestial objects on the surface of the celestial sphere. Conical curves and
their characteristics. Spherical trigonometry and spherical triangles.
Spherical coordinates: terrestrial latitude and longitude, altitudeazimuth
system, equatorial coordinates, hour angle and declination, right ascension
and declination, ecliptic coordinates and galactic coordinates.
Transformation of the coordinates from one to another system. Rate of change
of zenith distance and azimuth, rising and setting. Kepler’s equation and the
seasons. Equatorial coordinates of the
Sun. The equation of time and its annual variation, the calculations of time,
The Julian date. The mean and the real solar and related times, sideral times
together with their calculations and transformations. Reduction of
observations: atmospheric refraction, parallaxes, aberration, precession and
nutation. Effect of the parallax on the ecliptic and equatioral cooardinates,
proper motions. Course Code and Name: AST206 Statistical Astronomy (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 6 Content: Statistical distributions,
analysis of error, type of errors, propagation of errors. Accuracy and
precision. Seperate of values into groups, frequency distributions, class
interval, midpoints, relative frequency, cumulative frequency. Moments,
skewness, kurtosis. Binom and Poisson distributions. Normal error function
(Gauss distribution). Gauss probability distribution, modulus of precision,
full width at half maximum. Weighted observations. Dependent observations
(least squares method). Normal equations. Correlation probability,
multivariate correlation, correlation for polynomials. Stellar parallax and
proper motions. Space velocity, moving cluster. Spatial distribution of the
stars. Luminosity and spectral type distributions. The structure of Milkway Galaxy, model of Kapteyn. Galactic
rotation. Course Code and Name: FIZ258 Optics Laboratory (mandatory) Credits: National: 2 (0,0,4), ECTS: 4 Content: Laws of reflection and
refraction. Dispersion and total internal reflection. Object and image
relations in convex lenses. Light and color. Twoslit interference.
Polarization. Diffraction grating. Single slit diffraction. Optical
instruments: projector, telescope, microscope. Microwave optics. Course Code and Name: KÝM202 Chemistry II (mandatory) Credits : National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 4 Content: Liquids and State Changes:
Liquid phase, evaporation, equilibrium vapor pressure, boiling point,
enthalpy of vaporization, heating and cooling curves, phase diagrams, the
freezing point. Solids: Unit cell, crystal systems according to the type of
unit cell, birim hücre türüne,selection of atoms filling the gaps and
structural units at latice points, the number of particles in the unit cell, birim hücredeki tanecik sayýsý, finding
Avogadro's number, packing in the solids. MixturesSolutions: The nature of
solutions, dissolution case, the concentration (molarity, molality,
normality, mole fraction, mass fraction), colligative properties of solutions
(vaporpressure lowering, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation,
osmotic pressure), colloids. Chemical Kinetics: Collisions of molecules and
reaction speeds, leküllerin çarpýþmalarý ve tepkime hýzlarý, temperature and
reaction speed, reaction degree,
catalyst, chemical kinetics (the first, second and thirddegree reactions).
Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible reactions, heterogeneous equilibrium,
equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's rule, the factors affecting equilibrium.
Acids and Bases: Acidbase definitions (Arrhenius, BronstedLowry and Lewis
definitions), force of acids and bases, neutralization. Equilibrium in
Aqueous Solution: Dissociation and assosciation equilibriums, dissaciation
equilibrium of water, pH, strong and weak acid and base solutions, buffer
solutions, hydrolysis, dissolutionprecipitation equilibrium (resolution,
depressed condition, the commonion effect). Chemical Thermodynamics: System
and it's variables, zeroth, first, second and third laws of thermodynamic,
reaction internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, Hess's law.
Electrochemistry: Metallic and electrolytic conductivity, electrolysis,
Faraday's law, the batteries. Course Code and Name: MAT224 Partial Differential Equations (mandatory) Credits : National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Basic concepts, Classifying partial
differential equations, Construction of partial differential equations, First
order linear partial differential equations, First order semilinear partial
differential equations, Lagrange method, Cauchy problem for first order
linear and semilinear partial differential equations, First order
semilinear partial differential equations with n independent variable, First
order nonlinear partial differential equations, Compatible systems, Charpit method,
First order partial differential equations of particular type and reducible
equations to this form, Cauchy problem for general first order partial
differential equations, Higher order linear partial differential equations,
Reducible equations, Exponentialtype solutions, Polynomial solutions,
Particular solutions, Linear partial differential equations with variable
coefficients, Euler type partial differential equations, Classifying partial
differential equations and canonical forms, The wave equation, Laplace
equation, Uniqueness of D’Alembert solution, The heat equation, The method of
separation of variables. Course Code and Name: AST301 Data Analysis in Astronomy I
(mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 7 Content: An introduction to spradsheet
softwares. Fundamentals of Excel; menus and windows. Understanding
spreadsheets, moving between the cells, entering data into the spreadsheet
cells, selecting a range of cells, clearing the contents of a cell or a range
of cells. Formatting the spreadsheet. Naming a cell or a range of cells,
formulation using names. Absolute and relative referencing. Standard toolbars
and costumizing the toolbars. Understanding formulas, entering simple
formulas, using functions, Excel functions. Understanding page setup, print
preview and printing. Charting basics, creating a chart, editing a chart,
moving or resizing an chart. Adding or deleting data from the chart. Database
basics, creating a database within Excel, data filtering. Macro basics,
recording a macro, running a macro, understanding the macro codes. Building
custom functions for some astronomical applications. Course Code and Name: AST303 Celestial Mechanics (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Classical Mechanics and
properties of the motions. Center of mass of a body and of a continuous body.
Center of gravity, the difference between and coincidence with the center of
mass. The problem of two bodies, Law of universal gravitation and Kepler’s
laws. The determination of orbits and discussion on several kinds of orbits.
Mass estimation for Earth, Sun, Moon, Planets and the components of binary
stars. Velocity estimation for circular, elliptical and parabolic orbits.
Orbit determination from orbital velocity in case of circular, elliptical and
parabolic orbits. Positions of the body in various orbits and its energy.
Kepler’s equation and solution of Kepler’s equation. Relations of energy for
circular, elliptical and parabolic orbits. Determination of orbits for binary
star, Some methods for mass determination of binary star components. The
problem of three bodies and particular solutions of the problem of three
bodies, the surfaces of zero relative velocity. Course Code and Name: AST305 Astrophysics I (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 7 Content: Definition of light and
radiation, solid angle, luminosity, intensity and radiation flux. Radiation
pressure, absorption and emission. Radiation Laws: Kirchhoff and StefanBoltzmann
Laws, Wien displacement law and its application. Classical picture of
radiation and quantum theory. Planck radiation law and Einstein coefficient
for transition. Atomic structure and the Bohr model, spectral line series.
The Sommerfeld model and its application. Atomic structure based on quantum
theory, Pauli’s exclusion principle and the multiplicity of the term.
Identification of spectral lines, term diagram, forbidden lines. Structure of
diatomic molecules. The gaseous state, perfect gas, relation between
temperature and mean kinetic velocity. Thermodynamic equilibrium, degenerate
matter. Boltzmann’s law for excitation and Saha’s ionization equation. Tests
of the ionization theory, the spectral sequence and luminosity effects, HR
diagram. Course Code and Name: FIZ305 Quantum Physics (mandatory) Credits: National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8 Content: Limits of classical physics.
Blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, photon and waveparticle duality.
Uncertainty principle, wave packets and Fourier transformations. Postulates
of quantum mechanics. Schrödinger equation for free particles, potential barriers. One dimensional
harmonic oscillator. Quantized energy levels and atomic models. Spin. Course Code and Name: FIZ355 Quantum Physics Lab. (mandatory) Credits: National: 2 (0,4,0), ECTS: 3 Content: Photoelectric effect.
Ionization with electrons. Atomic spectra. Measurement of e/m. Diffraction
with electrons. Millikan’s oil drop experiment. FrankHertz experiment.
MichelsonMorley interferometer. Course Code and Name: AST302 Data Analysis in Astronomy II (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 7 Content: Definition of a database,
differences between several data formats. Server types (database servers,
mail servers, web servers,and ftp servers). Installation and configuration of
MySQL database server. MySQL commands and establishing a connection to MySQL
server. Commonly used SQL Database
functions. SQL commands; INSERT, SELACT, UPDATE commands. Definition, type,
installation, and common configuration settings of web servers. Structure of
HTML and basic commands. Type of web programming languages. PHP installation,
its properties, and various commands. Usage of MySQL with PHP and HTML.
Miscellaneous examples of PHP, MySQL and HTML in Astronomy. Course Code and Name: AST304
Double Stars (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 4 Content: The classification of double
stars. Astrometry: observations and measurements. Visual double stars:
Observation, orbital elements, gravitation and Kepler’s laws. Apparent and
true ellipse, method of KowalskyGlassenapp, Zwiers and Russell, Thiele and
Inness. Application to the line of sight, straight line apparent orbit.
Interferometers. Sum of masses, massluminosity relation, dynamical parallax,
astrometric double stars, resolved astrometric binaries, photocentric orbit,
unresolved astrometric binaries, mass determination. Spectroscopy:
Observation and reduction. Heliocentric correction. Spectroscopic parallax.
Spectroscopic binary stars: Single lined spectra. Method of LehmannFilhes,
SchwarczschildZurhellen, WilsingRussell, Russell and LavesKing. Mass
function (single lined spectra), Rotation effect, Gas streams. Double lined
spectra. Mass ratio (doule lined), influence of reflection effect, ratio of
intensities, PeriodLuminosity relations. Photometry: Intensity, magnitude,
color and reddening, Blackbody energy distribution, magnitude systems,
lighttime, period, light curve. Eclipsing binary stars. Algol type eclipsing
binaries. Loss of light. Depth relations. Dynamical conditions. Total and
partial eclipses. Limb darkening. Influence of limb darkening. b Lyrae type eclipsing binaries.
Oblateness. Dynamical condition for oblate stars. Oblateness with limb
darkening. W Ursae Majoris type eclipsing binaries. Kinds of eclipses.
Gravitation effect. Gravitation effect and limb darkening. Reflection
effect. Approximate rectification. Reflection and reradiation. Correct
rectification. Visible and invisible companions. Eccentricity of the orbit.
Rotation of the line of apsides. Information about masses, sizes and
densities. Course Code and Name: AST306 Variable Stars (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 3 Content: Lightcurves and periods.
Nomenclature of variable stars. GCVS Variable Star Classification.
Observational methods and organizations. Literature and references. Pulsating
Variables: Classical pulsating stars (d Cephei and W Virginis Stars, RR
Lyrae stars, d Scuti Stars), SlowlyVarying pulsating stars (Mira stars,
Semiregular, Irregular and RV Tauri stars), Non radial pulsators (d Cephei and ZZ Ceti stars).
Eruptive Variables: Eruptive Binaries (Cataclysmic Variables, Novae, U
Geminorum Stars, AM Herculis stars, Symbiotic stars, XRay binaries).
Eruptive Variables: Supernova, T Tauri stars, Flare stars, S Doratus type
stars, g Cassiopeiae stars, R Coronae
Borealis stars, gray bursters, BY Draconis stars, Pulsars, and a2 Canum Venaticorum (magnetic)
stars. Eclipsing Stars: General and geometrical properties, classification,
periodic and nonperiodic changes. Course Code and Name: AST308 Astrophysics II (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 7 Content: HR diagram and Yerkes (or MKK)
classification. Equation of transfer and solution of the equation of
transfer. Eddington’s approximation. Continuous spectra of stars, Continuous
absorption coefficient. Freefree transitions, electron scattering, Rayleigh
scattering. Mean absorption coefficients. Coefficient for Negative Hydrogen
ion. The problem of the continuous absoption. Line formation, strength and
equivalent width of a spectral line. Absorption coefficient at center of a
spectral line: classical, atomic. Absorption coefficient at center of a
spectral line: quantum theory, atomic, oscillator strength (fvalues).
Broadening of spectral lines: Doppler, collisional effects and combined
effects. Broadening of spectral lines: Stark effect, Zeeman effect and
stellar rotation. Curve of growth, chemical analysis. Course Code and Name: AST310 Solar Physics (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 3 Content: Basic Solar properties, the
energy output of the Sun, Solar constant. Solar spectrum. The photosphere of
the Sun and limb darkening. The Sun as a star: The atmosphere and interior of
the Sun. Thermonuclear reactions for energy production in the Sun, Solar
neutrino. Heliographic coordinates of the sunspots. Sunspots and the rotation
of the Sun, SOHO observation. Classification, development and magnetic
properties of sunspots. Solar activity: Photospheric phenomenae, the sunspot
cycle. Butterfly diagram, the Maunder minimum. The Solar magnetic field, the
Babcock model. Chromosphere of the Sun and chromospheric activity. Corona,
coronal structure of the Sun, coronal Xray emission, solar radio
observations. Influence of the Solar activities, Brief discussion on
evolution of the Sun. Course Code and Name: FIZ312 Electromagnetic Waves (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 6 Content: Maxwell equations in vacuum and
dielectric medium, Wave equation and plane wave solution. Energy and momentum
of E.M. wave. Polarization. Boundary conditions at interface between
dielectrics, reflection and refraction, Snell’s law. E.M. waves in conductors
and plasma, dispersion relations. Wave guides. Superposition of waves, wave
packet. Course Code and Name: AST401 Galaxies (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 5 Content: The basic building block of
galaxies “stars”, star light, stellar spectra, the lives of the stars, binary
stars, stellar photometry. Our Milky Way galaxy, structure, kinematics and
coordinate system. Other Galaxies, galaxy types and observational
characteristic. Diffuse matter (gas, dust, radiation) and dark matter. Galaxy
groups, clusters and superclusters. Hubble Law and distance scale.
Largescale distribution of matter in the Universe. Course Code and Name: AST403 Structure and Evolution of Stars (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 5 Content: The equations of stellar
structure and basic concepts, HR diagram and observational properties of
stars. The physics of stellar interiors and the source of stellar energy. The
opacity of stellar material and the source of opacity. Energy transport by
convection and influence of convection. Interstellar matter and formation of
stars. The structure of main sequence stars, homologous sequence of stellar
models. Effect of variation of chemical composition. Detailed calculations of
main sequence structure and comparison with observation. Premain sequence
evolution and the approach to the main sequence. General character of
postmain sequence evolution. Dependence of evolution on stellar mass. Star
clusters, the evolution of low and very low mass stars. The final stages of stellar
evolution: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Course Code and Name: AST405 Photometry (elective) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 4 Content: History of photoelectric
photometry (Early history, The Stebbins era, the photomultiplier era). The
quantum nature of light and photometric concepts. Typical photometric
systems: visual, photographic and photoelectric. Photometric systems (narrow
and wide band systems). Telescopes and dedectors used in photoelectric
observations. Ideal detector, commonly used dedectors and their
characteristic parameters, geometrical properties, spectral and dynamical
properties, temporal properties and noise. Type of photomultipliers and
characteristics. The effect of refrigeration. The photoelectric effect,
essential parts of a photomultiplier tube. The effect of atmosphere and
interstellar extinction. General information about atmospheric extinction and
correction. Atmospheric turbulence (scintillation and seeing). Differential
photoelectric photometry: Data reduction (determining raw instrumental
magnitude, raw instrumental differential magnitude, instrumental differential
magnitude outside the Earth’s atmosphere, standard differential magnitude.
Heliocentric correction. Achieving maximum accuracy: Random and systematic
errors, source of errors. Course Code and Name: AST407 Contemporary Programming (elective) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Definition, syntax, application
types, compilation and execution of JAVA Codes. Application programming and
compilation. Variables and data types, scope of variables. Java operators,
Java Libraries, type of classes (String, integer, double, math, and date).
Data Input/Output, control and loop structures, runtime debugging and
exception handling. Array variables, array sorting, and array copying.
Classes, objects and methods, accessing to variables. Properties and
execution of applets, Java Graphics Library. WEB based programming ( HTML,
CGI, Java, PHP ve XML), general properties, rules and techniques.
Applications on selected astronomical problems. Course Code and Name: AST411 Modelling in Astronomy (elective) Credits: National: 2 (1,2,0), ECTS: 6 Content: Introducing some astronomy
computer programmes. Explanation of diurnal motion by using desktop
planetarium programmes. Computer applications on photometric and
spectroscopic observations by using virtual telescopes. Obtaining light and
radial velocity curves. The computer programmes to modelling these curves and
their applications. Course Code and Name: AST413 Planetary Systems and Their Formation (elective) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Definitions, Brief History,
Star Formation, Protoplanetary Disks, Planet Formation, Orbit Mechanics,
Exoplanet Discovery Techniques (Timing, Radial Velocity, Transits
Gravitational Microlensing, Direct Imaging and Astrometry), Results from
Exoplanet Studies and Their Comparison with the Theories, Search for
Extraterrestrial (Intelligent) Life, Future of Exoplanet Studies Course Code and Name: AST415 Numerical Analysis in Astronomy I (elective) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Python programming language,
short history, comparisons with other programming languages, basic
expressions, functions, loops and conditional structures, data input and
error handling, files, object oriented programming with Python, application
development for command line and graphical user interface. Course Code and Name: AST402 Practical Astronomy (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (1,4,0), ECTS: 6 Content: Determination of basic physical
parameters of celestial objects by practical and fast reduction techniques
with indoor lab experiments using readly onhand data. Determination of the
value of the speed of light. Calculation of the equatorial coordinates of the
Sun. Photographic photometry of the stars. Discovery of Neptun with
astrometry. Determination of the SunEarth distance. Determination of the
orbital properties of natural and artifical satellites. Continuous spectrum
of the Sun. Space motion of Barnard’s star. Spectral properties of the stars.
The Calculation of spectroscopic and trigonometric parallax. The
Colourmagnitude diagram of the Hyades cluster. Calculating the distances and
absolute magnitudes of galactic novae. Properties of our Milkyway galaxy.
Rotational structure and mass of the M31 galaxy. Determination of the Hubble
constant. Determinations of some physical properties of variable stars from
their observations. Course Code and Name: AST404 Observational Astronomy (mandatory) Credits: National: 3 (0,6,0), ECTS: 6 Content: Measuring the angular
separation among the objects and the size of constellations. Implementation
of the spherical coordinate system and measurements actual coordinates of
Polaris and bright objects. Horizon, ecliptic and equatorial coordinate
systems, Argelander method to determine the visual magnitude of the stars,
Astronomical catalogs. Finding the position of the celestial objects using
the star chart. Importance of time in Astronomy, equation of time, local
time, GMT, Ephemeris time and Sideral time. Photoelectric photometry of
eclipsing binaries, techiques and reduction of data. Determination of the
minima times with Kwee van Worden method. Sunspot observations. Distances in
Astronomy, parallax and distance modulus. Introduction to stellar
spectroscopy, HR Diagram. Astrophotograpy. Course Code and Name: AST406 Long Wavelength Astronomy (elective) Credits: National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 4 Content: Radio and infrared astronomy;
observations, radio telescopes and antennas, receivers and other essential
parts of a radio telescopes, effective area, beamwidth, power and gain of
antennas. Brightness temperature and antenna temperature, receivers,
sensitivity, signal detection and noise. Singleaperture radio telescopes,
angular resolution. The radio interferometer: the twoelement interferometer,
Multiple wave interferometer. The Mills pencilbeam radiometer, VLA and
VLBI. Radio sources: Solar and Solar like radio emission. Galactic dynamics
and the distributions of matter determined from the 21 cm Hline. Molecules
in the galaxy. Infrared astronomical technology; dedectors. Galactic infrared
and radio observations. Radio galaxies, quasars and
pulsars. Polarization, Stokes parameters, the cosmic microwave
background. Course Code and Name: AST408 Image Processing in Astronomy (elective) Credits: National: 2 (1,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Definition of image processing
and image development. Analog photography and steps of image development,
grains, exposure time, diaphragm values. properties and operation principle
of CCD’s (ChargeCoupled Device). CCD image analysis and defects on CCD’s.
Reduction of CCD images, bias, dark, and flat frames, calibration and image
enhancements. Resolution, pixel and chip dimensions. Type of image file
formats, FIT/FITS format. Color definition in digital photography and pixel
depth. File compression concept, vector and pixel file formats. Image
formation with light, split image and lens cameras. CCD applications in
astronomy. Course Code and Name: AST410 High Energy Astrophysics (elective) Credits: National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 4 Content: History of cosmic ray physics
and high energy astrophysics. Interaction of highenergy particles with
matter. Relativistic and nonrelativistic high energy particles. The damage
effect of high energy particles to the spacecrafts. Detectors and telescopes
for capturing high energy particles, Xrays, grays. High energies from Solar upper atmosphere and
members of the solar system. Supernova remnants, stellar coronae, Xray
binaries. Background radiation and gamma ray bursts. Course Code and Name: AST412 Lunar and Solar Eclipses (elective) Credits: National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 4 Content: Circumstances of eclipses.
Umbral and penumbral structure and the length of the shadow cones. Ecliptical
limits for umbral and penumbral eclipses. The Saros period. Basics of Bessel
theory for Solar eclipses. Predicting the eclipses for a given location on
Earth. The concept of eclipse zone and reading the eclipse maps. The
scientific observations during the eclipses and key findings. Course Code and Name: AST414 Late Stages of Stellar Evolution
(elective) Credits: National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 4 Content: Process of star formation,
interstellar dust and gas, the formation of protostars Premain sequence
evolution. Postmain sequence evolution, main sequence evolution, late stages
of stellar evolution. Fate of massive stars, stellar clusters stellar
pulsation, observations of pulsating stars, the physics of stellar
pulsations. Nonradial stellar pulsations, helioseismology. Degenerate star
remnants, the discovery of the Sirius B, the physics of degenerate matter. Course Code and Name: AST416 Numerical Analysis in Astronomy II (elective) Credits: National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5 Content: Introduction, error analysis,
matrices, finite differences, interpolation and extrapolation, curve fitting,
series, numerical differentiation and numerical integration, Fourier
analysis. 

Ankara
University, Faculty of Science, Dept. of Astronomy and Space Sciences,
TR06100, Tandogan  ANKARA / TURKEY 
