**UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME – COURSE CONTENTS**

**Course Code and Name:** **AST101 History of Astronomy **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 3

**Content:** Definitions and conceptions (science, history of science). Birth of science, eras, method of science. Astronomy; study of field, connection of other natural sciences, universitality. Astronomical studies in ancient era (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indian and Chinese cosmology). Apparent motions of the celestial objects, constellations, basic concepts in astronomy. Classical Greek civilization: Ionians (Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras), Pythagoreans, school of Elea, other ideas, Hellenic period (Socrates, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Heraclides), Hellenitic period (Euclid, Aristarchus, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus). Greco-Roman period, Dark ages (Ptolemy). Islamic Astronomy (in Baghdad): Habeş el-Hasib, Harezmi, Fergani, Sabit Bin Kurra, El Battani, El Sufi, Eb-ül Vefa). Islamic Astronomy: İbn-i Yunus, El Heysem, El Biruni, İbn-i Sina, El Zerkali, Ö. Hayyam. Semerkant Observatory and astronomy in Ottomans. Renaissance period; the scholastics (Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galilei, Huygens). Halley, Newton. Classical mechanics after Newton and nature of light, understanding of properties of the stars (parallax, spectrum, observations of variable stars). Turkish astronomy in republic era.

**Course Code and Name: ****FIZ101 Physics I** (mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8

**Content: **(Mechanics)** **Physics and measurements, vectors. One dimensional motion, instantanous velocity, acceleration, one dimensional motion under constant acceleration, feely falling bodies. Two dimensional motion, Laws of motion, circular motion and Newton’s laws of motion. Motion in accelerated systems, friction. Work, power and energy, potential and kinetic energy, conservation of energy. Momentum and collisions. Rotational and orbital motion, moment of inertia, movement of rolling bodies, angular momentum and tork. Stable equilibrium and elasticity. Oscillatory motion. Universal law of gravitation. Fluid mechanics.

**Course Code and Name: ****FIZ151 Physics Lab. I** (mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 1 (0,2,0), ECTS: 3

**Content: **Measurement of lengths. Error calculation and significant numbers. Length measurements with vernier caliper. The accuracy and precision of a measurement. Motion on inclined plane. Distance vs. time and acceleration vs. time relations, unit analysis. Pendulum, simple harmonic oscillator. Complicated data and unit analysis. Impulse and momentum. Conservation of momentum. Distance vs. time, velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Rotational motion, centripetal force.

**Course Code and Name:** **MAT101 Mathematics I **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8

**Content: **Conic Sections, Numbers, Absolute Value, Greatest Integer Value, Inequalities, the Concept of Function, Some Special Functions, Some Simple Curve Sketching, Trigonometric Functions, Inverse Trigonometric Functions, Exponential and Logarithmic Functions, Hyperbolic and the Inverse Hyperbolic Functions, The Limit Concept, One Sided Limits, Some Trigonometric Limits, The Concept of Continuity, Some Properties of the Functions that are Continuous on the Closed Interval (Intermediate Value Theorem, Bolzano’s Theorem, local maximum, minimum), The Derivative. General Rules for Differentiation. Derivative of an Inverse Function, Derivatives of Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions, Derivatives of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions, Logarithmic Differentiation. Derivatives of Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions. Derivatives of Parametric Functions. Implicit Differentiation, Higher Derivative. The Geometric Interpretation of the Derivative. Maximum, Minimum (Increasing-Decreasing Functions, First Derivative Test for Local Extremums, Fermat’s Theorem, Second Derivatives Test, Maximum-Minimum Problems, Theorems Related with Derivative (Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem, Generalized Mean Value Theorem), Convex Functions, (Concavity, Inflection Points), Indetermined Forms (L’Hospital’s Rule), Asymptotes, Curve Sketching. Parametric Representations, The Concept of Differential, the Integral (the concept of antiderivatives). Evaluation of Integrals (Integration by Substitution, Integration by Parts), Reduction Formulas, Partial Fractions, Trigonometric Integrals, The Integration of Irrational Functions.

**Course Code and Name:** **MAT113 Linear Algebra I **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content: **Matrices and matrice operations, linear transformations, elementary operations, elementary operations of parallel row vectors of matrices, rank and invers of a matrix. Permutation concept. Determinant function, rank of a determinant, rank of a linear transformation, determinant of a linear transformation. Linear equation systems. Characteristic polynom of matrix . Diagonalization. Motions in Euclidean plane.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST102 Space Researches **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 3

**Content:** Modelling of nearby space. Showing the distance of stars on this model. From where does the space begin and why? History of space researches and space competition of countries. Rockets and their properties. Orbits of the space vehicles and their return back to earth. Benefits of space researches to daily life. Space vehicles used in planet researches. Space pollution and the ways to prevent the pollution. Space Tourism. Space Illnesses. The special clothes and food of the astronauts. Planned space programmes.

**Course Code and Name: ****FIZ102 Physics II** (mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8

**Content: **(Electricity ve Magnetism) Electrostatic: charges and fields, conductors and insulators. Coulomb’s Law, Gauss’ Law. Electric potential and potential difference, capasitors and dielectrics. Current and resistivity, superconductors, DC circuits, resistances in serial and parallel. Kirchoff’s rules, RC circuits, magnetic fields, movements of charges in magnetic fields, sources of magnetic fields, Biot-Savart Law, Ampère’s Law, Faraday’s Law, Lenz’s Law, inductance, AC circuits. Electromagnetic waves.

**Course Code and Name: ****FIZ152 Physics Lab. II** (mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 1 (0,2,0), ECTS: 3

**Content: **Measurements of current and potential. Ohm law. Kirchhoff rules. Coulomb balance. Resistance of a tungusten filament bulb and semiconductor diod. Circular electrodes. Imaginary charges. Acceleration and deflection of electrons. Temperature dependence of resistors and thermistors. Measurement of alternating potentials using oscilloscope.

**Course Code and Name:** **MAT102 Mathematics II **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8

**Content: **Definite integral (Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus, The Derivative of Integral, Mean Value Theorem), Some Application of Integrals (Areas by Integration), Volumes by the Method of Cross Sections, Solids of Revolution- Disks, Volumes by the Method of Cylindrical Shells, Improper Integrals (I and II. Types) Tests For Convergence of the Improper Integrals for types I and II, Polar Coordinates, Sketching Plane Curves, Area and Arc Length Computations in Polar Coordinates. Sequences, The Convergence of Sequences,. Series. Convergence tests for series with positive terms (Comparison test, Limit Comparison test, Integral Test, Root Test), Alternating Series, Power Series, Taylor Series, Functions with Several Variables. Limits and Continuity, Partial Derivatives. The Chain Rule, Transformations of Regions. Double Integrals, Applications of Double Integrals, Triple Integrals. Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates, Applications of Triple Integrals.

**Course Code and Name:** **MAT114 Linear Algebra II **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content: **Vector space concept. Vectors on plane. Vectors on space. Subvector space. Linear dependence and linear independence of a vector set. Properties of vector space’s bases. Dimensions of subspaces. Direct sum, union space and intersect space Inner product, space with inner product, orthonormal vector systems, Gram-Schmidt method, subspaces of spaces with inner product, orthogonal complement. Linear transformations and matrices, kernel and rank of a linear transformation. Dual space, dual base, dual of a space, properties of dual space. Vectoral product in 3-dimensional space, properties of vectoral product, mixed product and its applications. Motions in Euclidean 3D-space.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST200 General Astronomy **(elective – see the warning below)

**Credits :** National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** **WARNING**: This course is designed for the students studying at the departments other than the Dept. of Astronomy and Space Sciences. Students of our department cannot take this course. Modelling the solar system and the universe. Distances to the stars. Constellations. Why it is impossible to make fortunetelling using stars. What are UFOs? A short history of astronomy. Definitions of coordinate systems used in astronomy. General properties of planets. Space researches. General properties of stars and their physical parameters. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and its interpretation. The structure of our galaxy and distribution of stars within. Type of galaxies and their properties. Law of Hubble and the Big Bang. Possible life forms in space and other solar systems.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST201 Astronomy I **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** The Diurnal Motion of the celestial bodies, The definitions of horizon circle, meridian, latitude and longitude of the observer on Earth. Diurnal motion of the Sun, the plane of Ecliptic. The Diurnal motion of the Moon. Orbital motion and phases of the Moon. Diurnal motion of the planets, Kepler’s Law, terrestial and jovian planets. Coordinate systems (Horizon, hour, equatorial, ecliptic and galactic coordinates). Time, hour angle of a star, equation of time, time zones, sidereal year, tropical year, lunar year. Calendars (Julian, Gregorian and Lunar calendars). The events that effect the celestial coordinates (Refraction, parallax, aberration of light, precession and nutation). The Earth; shape, size, mass, age, rotation and orbital motion around the Sun. Stellar parallactic motions. The Moon; distance, size, mass, rotation and orbital motion around the Earth.

**Course Code and Name: ****AST203 Observational Instruments** (mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** The Electromagnetic spectrum. Principle Laws of Geometric Optic. Snell Laws. Plane paralel surfaces and prisms. Critical angle and total reflection. Reflection and refraction on plane parallel surfaces. Spherical surfaces, focal points and lengths, image formation in spherical surfaces. Ray tracing; the parallel and oblique ray methods, convention of signs, magnification, Gauss formulae. Lenses, lens makers formula, combinations of lenses. Spherical mirros; image formation, graphical construction and calculation, image formation in lens–mirror systems, spherical aberrations in spherical mirrors. Lens aberrations; spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, curvature of the field, image distortionschromatic aberration. Telescopes; aperture, effective transmission, type of telescopes, telescope mounts. Resolving power, magnification and limiting magnitude of the telescopes. Spectrographs; angular and linear dispersion, resolution. Prisms and gratings. Detectors and their properties. Spectral sensivitiy.

**Course Code and Name: ****AST205 Computer Programming** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 6

**Content:** A brief history and properties of computers, hardwares, softwares and their contents. Computer concepts (desktop, taskbar etc.), directory and file concepts (forming, copying, deleting, etc.). Algorithm concepts, counter techniques, repeat and control structures in algorithm. Flowcharts and their symbols. Visual Basic setup, objects and their properties. The variable concept, assigning name, assigning values, and data types. Method of data entering using keyboard (InputBox and textbox). Sequence of arithmetic processes, mathematical, alpha-numerical, date, and changing type of functions. Conditional structures (if and select structures). Loop structures (for and do structures). Array variables, scope of variables and lifetime. Subroutine concepts and user defined functions. Data storage necessity and methods of storage. Data file processes, file creation, write to file, read from file and deleting a record, deleting and renaming files.

**Course Code and Name: ****AST207 Solar System **(mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** Identifications, classifications and sizes of the solar system members. Physical properties of the solar system members. The terrestial and jovian planets. Formation theories of the solar system. Bombardment process experience of the planetary surfaces during the early formation stages. Orbits, internal structures, surface properties and atmospheres of the nine planets and their natural satellites in our solar system. Properties of the magnetic fields and the magnetospheres of the planets and their satellites. The Greenhouse effect in earth’s and other terrestial planets’ atmospheres. The Asteroids, the comets, the meteors and meteorides, the interplanetary medium, the Oort Cloud and the Kuiper Belt. Extrasolar planets.

**Course Code and Name:** **KİM201 Chemistry I **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** Introduction: The birth of chemistry, it’s place among the other natural sciences, branches, measurement, calculation and unit systems, material and energy, Lavoisier’s law, Lavoisier yasası, Dalton’s atomic theory, the law of constant proportions, the law of multiple proportions. Chemical Calculations: Mole, finding the chemical formulas, oxidation, reduction, oxidation and reduction numbers, balancing reaction equations, calculations based on chemical reactions. Atomic Structure: Material and energy, atomic structure and developments in atomic theory, the electrical structure of material, electrons, protons, atomic nucleus, neutrons. Periodic Table: Periodic law and the energy levels of the atom, the electron arrangement of elements. Structure of the Nucleus: Atomic nucleus, radioactive decay, nuclear fission and fusion, isotopes. Chemical Bondings: Chemical bond types, bond characteristics, chemical bonding theories, Lewis formulas, hybridization, resonance, formal charge and dipole moment. Gases: Physical properties of gases, mole, volume, temperature, pressure effects on each other, the ideal gas law, kinetic theory of gases.

**Course Code and Name:** **MAT223 Differential Equations **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 6

**Content: **Basic concepts, Classifying differential equations, Order and degree, Solution, general solution, particular solution, singular solution, Construction of differential equations, Initial-value and boundary-vaule problems, Separable equations, Homogeneous equations and reducible equations to this form, Exact differential equations and integrating factors, Linear equations, Bernoulli equations, Riccati equations, Applications of first order differential equations, Orthogonal and isogonal trajectories, Clairaut and Lagrange equations, Theory of linear differential equations, Second order linear homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients, nth-order linear homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients, Nonhomogeneous equations and particular solutions, Euler equation, Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, Second order nonlinear equations, Laplace transform, Inverse Laplace transform, Using Laplace transform to find solutions of linear equations with constant coefficients and linear systems, Power series method about an ordinary point, Frobenius method for a regular singular point.

**Course Code and Name: ****AST202 Astronomy II **(mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Electromagnetic spectrum, spectrograph, stellar spectra, types of spectrum, radiation laws and continuous spectrum (Stefan-Boltzmann, Wien and Planck Laws). Formation of line series in a spectrum, Bohr atom model. The spectrum of hidrogen and complex atoms. Stars; catalogues, distances, magnitudes. The spectral classification of stars. The physical explanation of spectral properties; Boltzman’s Law and Saha’s Law. Temperature of stars and the H-R Diagram. The Motion of Stars, proper motions, doppler shift and radial velocities. The motion of the Sun through the stars. Binary Stars; visual, spectroscopic and eclipsing binary stars. Star clusters, H-R diagram of the cluster members, open and globular star cluster, associations, stellar populations. Type of variable stars and their properties. Basics of stellar evolution.

**Course Code and Name: ****AST204 Spherical Astronomy** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Determining the positions of celestial objects on the surface of the celestial sphere. Conical curves and their characteristics. Spherical trigonometry and spherical triangles. Spherical coordinates: terrestrial latitude and longitude, altitude-azimuth system, equatorial coordinates, hour angle and declination, right ascension and declination, ecliptic coordinates and galactic coordinates. Transformation of the coordinates from one to another system. Rate of change of zenith distance and azimuth, rising and setting. Kepler’s equation and the seasons. Equatorial coordinates of the Sun. The equation of time and its annual variation, the calculations of time, The Julian date. The mean and the real solar and related times, sideral times together with their calculations and transformations. Reduction of observations: atmospheric refraction, parallaxes, aberration, precession and nutation. Effect of the parallax on the ecliptic and equatioral cooardinates, proper motions.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST206 Statistical Astronomy** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 6

**Content:** Statistical distributions, analysis of error, type of errors, propagation of errors. Accuracy and precision. Seperate of values into groups, frequency distributions, class interval, midpoints, relative frequency, cumulative frequency. Moments, skewness, kurtosis. Binom and Poisson distributions. Normal error function (Gauss distribution). Gauss probability distribution, modulus of precision, full width at half maximum. Weighted observations. Dependent observations (least squares method). Normal equations. Correlation probability, multivariate correlation, correlation for polynomials. Stellar parallax and proper motions. Space velocity, moving cluster. Spatial distribution of the stars. Luminosity and spectral type distributions. The structure of Milkway Galaxy, model of Kapteyn. Galactic rotation.

**Course Code and Name:** **FIZ258 Optics Laboratory** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 2 (0,0,4), ECTS: 4

**Content:** Laws of reflection and refraction. Dispersion and total internal reflection. Object and image relations in convex lenses. Light and color. Two-slit interference. Polarization. Diffraction grating. Single slit

diffraction. Optical instruments: projector, telescope, microscope. Microwave optics.

**Course Code and Name:** **KİM202 Chemistry II **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** Liquids and State Changes: Liquid phase, evaporation, equilibrium vapor pressure, boiling point, enthalpy of vaporization, heating and cooling curves, phase diagrams, the freezing point. Solids: Unit cell, crystal systems according to the type of unit cell, birim hücre türüne,selection of atoms filling the gaps and structural units at latice points, the number of particles in the unit cell, birim hücredeki tanecik sayısı, finding Avogadro’s number, packing in the solids. Mixtures-Solutions: The nature of solutions, dissolution case, the concentration (molarity, molality, normality, mole fraction, mass fraction), colligative properties of solutions (vapor-pressure lowering, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure), colloids. Chemical Kinetics: Collisions of molecules and reaction speeds, leküllerin çarpışmaları ve tepkime hızları, temperature and reaction speed, reaction degree, catalyst, chemical kinetics (the first, second and third-degree reactions). Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible reactions, heterogeneous equilibrium, equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s rule, the factors affecting equilibrium. Acids and Bases: Acid-base definitions (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions), force of acids and bases, neutralization. Equilibrium in Aqueous Solution: Dissociation and assosciation equilibriums, dissaciation equilibrium of water, pH, strong and weak acid and base solutions, buffer solutions, hydrolysis, dissolution-precipitation equilibrium (resolution, depressed condition, the common-ion effect). Chemical Thermodynamics: System and it’s variables, zeroth, first, second and third laws of thermodynamic, reaction internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, Hess’s law. Electrochemistry: Metallic and electrolytic conductivity, electrolysis, Faraday’s law, the batteries.

**Course Code and Name:** **MAT224 Partial Differential Equations **(mandatory)

**Credits :** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content: **Basic concepts, Classifying partial differential equations, Construction of partial differential equations, First order linear partial differential equations, First order semi-linear partial differential equations, Lagrange method, Cauchy problem for first order linear and semi-linear partial differential equations, First order semi-linear partial differential equations with n independent variable, First order nonlinear partial differential equations, Compatible systems, Charpit method, First order partial differential equations of particular type and reducible equations to this form, Cauchy problem for general first order partial differential equations, Higher order linear partial differential equations, Reducible equations, Exponential-type solutions, Polynomial solutions, Particular solutions, Linear partial differential equations with variable coefficients, Euler type partial differential equations, Classifying partial differential equations and canonical forms, The wave equation, Laplace equation, Uniqueness of D’Alembert solution, The heat equation, The method of separation of variables.

**Course Code and Name:**** AST301 Data Analysis in Astronomy I** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 7

**Content:** An introduction to spradsheet softwares. Fundamentals of Excel; menus and windows. Understanding spreadsheets, moving between the cells, entering data into the spreadsheet cells, selecting a range of cells, clearing the contents of a cell or a range of cells. Formatting the spreadsheet. Naming a cell or a range of cells, formulation using names. Absolute and relative referencing. Standard toolbars and costumizing the toolbars. Understanding formulas, entering simple formulas, using functions, Excel functions. Understanding page setup, print preview and printing. Charting basics, creating a chart, editing a chart, moving or resizing an chart. Adding or deleting data from the chart. Database basics, creating a database within Excel, data filtering. Macro basics, recording a macro, running a macro, understanding the macro codes. Building custom functions for some astronomical applications.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST303 Celestial Mechanics** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Classical Mechanics and properties of the motions. Center of mass of a body and of a continuous body. Center of gravity, the difference between and coincidence with the center of mass. The problem of two bodies, Law of universal gravitation and Kepler’s laws. The determination of orbits and discussion on several kinds of orbits. Mass estimation for Earth, Sun, Moon, Planets and the components of binary stars. Velocity estimation for circular, elliptical and parabolic orbits. Orbit determination from orbital velocity in case of circular, elliptical and parabolic orbits. Positions of the body in various orbits and its energy. Kepler’s equation and solution of Kepler’s equation. Relations of energy for circular, elliptical and parabolic orbits. Determination of orbits for binary star, Some methods for mass determination of binary star components. The problem of three bodies and particular solutions of the problem of three bodies, the surfaces of zero relative velocity.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST305 Astrophysics I** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 7

**Content:** Definition of light and radiation, solid angle, luminosity, intensity and radiation flux. Radiation pressure, absorption and emission. Radiation Laws: Kirchhoff and Stefan-Boltzmann Laws, Wien displacement law and its application. Classical picture of radiation and quantum theory. Planck radiation law and Einstein coefficient for transition. Atomic structure and the Bohr model, spectral line series. The Sommerfeld model and its application. Atomic structure based on quantum theory, Pauli’s exclusion principle and the multiplicity of the term. Identification of spectral lines, term diagram, forbidden lines. Structure of diatomic molecules. The gaseous state, perfect gas, relation between temperature and mean kinetic velocity. Thermodynamic equilibrium, degenerate matter. Boltzmann’s law for excitation and Saha’s ionization equation. Tests of the ionization theory, the spectral sequence and luminosity effects, H-R diagram.

**Course Code and Name:** **FIZ305 Quantum Physics** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 5 (4,2,0), ECTS: 8

**Content:** Limits of classical physics. Blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, photon and wave-particle duality. Uncertainty principle, wave packets and Fourier transformations. Postulates of quantum mechanics. Schrödinger equation for free particles, potential barriers. One dimensional harmonic oscillator. Quantized energy levels and atomic models. Spin.

**Course Code and Name:** **FIZ355 Quantum Physics Lab.** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 2 (0,4,0), ECTS: 3

**Content:** Photoelectric effect. Ionization with electrons. Atomic spectra. Measurement of e/m. Diffraction with electrons. Millikan’s oil drop experiment. Frank-Hertz experiment. Michelson-Morley interferometer.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST302 Data Analysis in Astronomy II** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 7

**Content:** Definition of a database, differences between several data formats. Server types (database servers, mail servers, web servers,and ftp servers). Installation and configuration of MySQL database server. MySQL commands and establishing a connection to MySQL server. Commonly used SQL Database functions. SQL commands; INSERT, SELACT, UPDATE commands. Definition, type, installation, and common configuration settings of web servers. Structure of HTML and basic commands. Type of web programming languages. PHP installation, its properties, and various commands. Usage of MySQL with PHP and HTML. Miscellaneous examples of PHP, MySQL and HTML in Astronomy.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST304 Double Stars** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** The classification of double stars. Astrometry: observations and measurements. Visual double stars: Observation, orbital elements, gravitation and Kepler’s laws. Apparent and true ellipse, method of Kowalsky-Glassenapp, Zwiers and Russell, Thiele and Inness. Application to the line of sight, straight line apparent orbit. Interferometers. Sum of masses, mass-luminosity relation, dynamical parallax, astrometric double stars, resolved astrometric binaries, photocentric orbit, unresolved astrometric binaries, mass determination. Spectroscopy: Observation and reduction. Heliocentric correction. Spectroscopic parallax. Spectroscopic binary stars: Single lined spectra. Method of Lehmann-Filhes, Schwarczschild-Zurhellen, Wilsing-Russell, Russell and Laves-King. Mass function (single lined spectra), Rotation effect, Gas streams. Double lined spectra. Mass ratio (doule lined), influence of reflection effect, ratio of intensities, Period-Luminosity relations. Photometry: Intensity, magnitude, color and reddening, Black-body energy distribution, magnitude systems, light-time, period, light curve. Eclipsing binary stars. Algol type eclipsing binaries. Loss of light. Depth relations. Dynamical conditions. Total and partial eclipses. Limb darkening. Influence of limb darkening. b Lyrae type eclipsing binaries. Oblateness. Dynamical condition for oblate stars. Oblateness with limb darkening. W Ursae Majoris type eclipsing binaries. Kinds of eclipses. Gravitation effect. Gravitation effect and limb darkening. Reflection effect. Approximate rectification. Reflection and reradiation. Correct rectification. Visible and invisible companions. Eccentricity of the orbit. Rotation of the line of apsides. Information about masses, sizes and densities.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST306 Variable Stars** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 3

**Content:** Light-curves and periods. Nomenclature of variable stars. GCVS Variable Star Classification. Observational methods and organizations. Literature and references. Pulsating Variables: Classical pulsating stars (d Cephei and W Virginis Stars, RR Lyrae stars, d Scuti Stars), Slowly-Varying pulsating stars (Mira stars, Semiregular, Irregular and RV Tauri stars), Non radial pulsators (d Cephei and ZZ Ceti stars). Eruptive Variables: Eruptive Binaries (Cataclysmic Variables, Novae, U Geminorum Stars, AM Herculis stars, Symbiotic stars, X-Ray binaries). Eruptive Variables: Supernova, T Tauri stars, Flare stars, S Doratus type stars, g Cassiopeiae stars, R Coronae Borealis stars, g-ray bursters, BY Draconis stars, Pulsars, and a2 Canum Venaticorum (magnetic) stars. Eclipsing Stars: General and geometrical properties, classification, periodic and non-periodic changes.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST308 Astrophysics II** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 7

**Content:** H-R diagram and Yerkes (or MKK) classification. Equation of transfer and solution of the equation of transfer. Eddington’s approximation. Continuous spectra of stars, Continuous absorption coefficient. Free-free transitions, electron scattering, Rayleigh scattering. Mean absorption coefficients. Coefficient for Negative Hydrogen ion. The problem of the continuous absoption. Line formation, strength and equivalent width of a spectral line. Absorption coefficient at center of a spectral line: classical, atomic. Absorption coefficient at center of a spectral line: quantum theory, atomic, oscillator strength (f-values). Broadening of spectral lines: Doppler, collisional effects and combined effects. Broadening of spectral lines: Stark effect, Zeeman effect and stellar rotation. Curve of growth, chemical analysis.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST310 Solar Physics** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 3

**Content:** Basic Solar properties, the energy output of the Sun, Solar constant. Solar spectrum. The photosphere of the Sun and limb darkening. The Sun as a star: The atmosphere and interior of the Sun. Thermonuclear reactions for energy production in the Sun, Solar neutrino. Heliographic coordinates of the sunspots. Sunspots and the rotation of the Sun, SOHO observation. Classification, development and magnetic properties of sunspots. Solar activity: Photospheric phenomenae, the sunspot cycle. Butterfly diagram, the Maunder minimum. The Solar magnetic field, the Babcock model. Chromosphere of the Sun and chromospheric activity. Corona, coronal structure of the Sun, coronal X-ray emission, solar radio observations. Influence of the Solar activities, Brief discussion on evolution of the Sun.

**Course Code and Name:** **FIZ312 Electromagnetic Waves** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 6

**Content:** Maxwell equations in vacuum and dielectric medium, Wave equation and plane wave solution. Energy and momentum of E.M. wave. Polarization. Boundary conditions at interface between dielectrics, reflection and refraction, Snell’s law. E.M. waves in conductors and plasma, dispersion relations. Wave guides. Superposition of waves, wave packet.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST401 Galaxies** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** The basic building block of galaxies “stars”, star light, stellar spectra, the lives of the stars, binary stars, stellar photometry. Our Milky Way galaxy, structure, kinematics and coordinate system. Other Galaxies, galaxy types and observational characteristic. Diffuse matter (gas, dust, radiation) and dark matter. Galaxy groups, clusters and superclusters. Hubble Law and distance scale. Large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST403 Structure and Evolution of Stars** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** The equations of stellar structure and basic concepts, H-R diagram and observational properties of stars. The physics of stellar interiors and the source of stellar energy. The opacity of stellar material and the source of opacity. Energy transport by convection and influence of convection. Interstellar matter and formation of stars. The structure of main sequence stars, homologous sequence of stellar models. Effect of variation of chemical composition. Detailed calculations of main sequence structure and comparison with observation. Pre-main sequence evolution and the approach to the main sequence. General character of post-main sequence evolution. Dependence of evolution on stellar mass. Star clusters, the evolution of low and very low mass stars. The final stages of stellar evolution: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST405 Photometry** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** History of photoelectric photometry (Early history, The Stebbins era, the photomultiplier era). The quantum nature of light and photometric concepts. Typical photometric systems: visual, photographic and photoelectric. Photometric systems (narrow and wide band systems). Telescopes and dedectors used in photoelectric observations. Ideal detector, commonly used dedectors and their characteristic parameters, geometrical properties, spectral and dynamical properties, temporal properties and noise. Type of photomultipliers and characteristics. The effect of refrigeration. The photoelectric effect, essential parts of a photomultiplier tube. The effect of atmosphere and interstellar extinction. General information about atmospheric extinction and correction. Atmospheric turbulence (scintillation and seeing). Differential photoelectric photometry: Data reduction (determining raw instrumental magnitude, raw instrumental differential magnitude, instrumental differential magnitude outside the Earth’s atmosphere, standard differential magnitude. Heliocentric correction. Achieving maximum accuracy: Random and systematic errors, source of errors.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST407 Contemporary Programming** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Definition, syntax, application types, compilation and execution of JAVA Codes. Application programming and compilation. Variables and data types, scope of variables. Java operators, Java Libraries, type of classes (String, integer, double, math, and date). Data Input/Output, control and loop structures, run-time debugging and exception handling. Array variables, array sorting, and array copying. Classes, objects and methods, accessing to variables. Properties and execution of applets, Java Graphics Library. WEB based programming ( HTML, CGI, Java, PHP ve XML), general properties, rules and techniques. Applications on selected astronomical problems.

**Course Code and Name: ****AST411 Modelling in Astronomy** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 2 (1,2,0), ECTS: 6

**Content:** Introducing some astronomy computer programmes. Explanation of diurnal motion by using desktop planetarium programmes. Computer applications on photometric and spectroscopic observations by using virtual telescopes. Obtaining light and radial velocity curves. The computer programmes to modelling these curves and their applications.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST413 Planetary Systems and Their Formation** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Definitions, Brief History, Star Formation, Protoplanetary Disks, Planet Formation, Orbit Mechanics, Exoplanet Discovery Techniques (Timing, Radial Velocity, Transits Gravitational Microlensing, Direct Imaging and Astrometry), Results from Exoplanet Studies and Their Comparison with the Theories, Search for Extraterrestrial (Intelligent) Life, Future of Exoplanet Studies

**Course Code and Name:** **AST415 Numerical Analysis in Astronomy I** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Python programming language, short history, comparisons with other programming languages, basic expressions, functions, loops and conditional structures, data input and error handling, files, object oriented programming with Python, application development for command line and graphical user interface.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST417 Cosmology** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Basic concepts; active galactic nuclei: taxonomy, the central engine nature, origin and evolution; introduction to cosmology: nature of the universe, models of the universe; big bang cosmology: thermal history of the universe, the early universe, primordial nucleosynthesis and the abundance of light elements; observational cosmology: measuring the Hubble constant, the value of the deceleration parameter, cosmic microwave background; outstanding problems about the Universe.

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**Course Code and Name:** **AST402 Practical Astronomy** (mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (1,4,0), ECTS: 6

**Content:** Determination of basic physical parameters of celestial objects by practical and fast reduction techniques with indoor lab experiments using readly onhand data. Determination of the value of the speed of light. Calculation of the equatorial coordinates of the Sun. Photographic photometry of the stars. Discovery of Neptun with astrometry. Determination of the Sun-Earth distance. Determination of the orbital properties of natural and artifical satellites. Continuous spectrum of the Sun. Space motion of Barnard’s star. Spectral properties of the stars. The Calculation of spectroscopic and trigonometric parallax. The Colour-magnitude diagram of the Hyades cluster. Calculating the distances and absolute magnitudes of galactic novae. Properties of our Milkyway galaxy. Rotational structure and mass of the M31 galaxy. Determination of the Hubble constant. Determinations of some physical properties of variable stars from their observations.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST404 Observational Astronomy **(mandatory)

**Credits:** National: 3 (0,6,0), ECTS: 6

**Content:** Measuring the angular separation among the objects and the size of constellations. Implementation of the spherical coordinate system and measurements actual coordinates of Polaris and bright objects. Horizon, ecliptic and equatorial coordinate systems, Argelander method to determine the visual magnitude of the stars, Astronomical catalogs. Finding the position of the celestial objects using the star chart. Importance of time in Astronomy, equation of time, local time, GMT, Ephemeris time and Sideral time. Photoelectric photometry of eclipsing binaries, techiques and reduction of data. Determination of the minima times with Kwee van Worden method. Sunspot observations. Distances in Astronomy, parallax and distance modulus. Introduction to stellar spectroscopy, H-R Diagram. Astrophotograpy.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST406 Long Wavelength Astronomy** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 3 (3,0,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** Radio and infrared astronomy; observations, radio telescopes and antennas, receivers and other essential parts of a radio telescopes, effective area, beamwidth, power and gain of antennas. Brightness temperature and antenna temperature, receivers, sensitivity, signal detection and noise. Single-aperture radio telescopes, angular resolution. The radio interferometer: the two-element interferometer, Multiple- wave interferometer. The Mills pencil-beam radiometer, VLA and VLBI. Radio sources: Solar and Solar like radio emission. Galactic dynamics and the distributions of matter determined from the 21 cm H-line. Molecules in the galaxy. Infrared astronomical technology; dedectors. Galactic infrared and radio observations. Radio galaxies, quasars and pulsars. Polarization, Stokes parameters, the cosmic microwave background.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST408 Image Processing in Astronomy** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 2 (1,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Definition of image processing and image development. Analog photography and steps of image development, grains, exposure time, diaphragm values. properties and operation principle of CCD’s (Charge-Coupled Device). CCD image analysis and defects on CCD’s. Reduction of CCD images, bias, dark, and flat frames, calibration and image enhancements. Resolution, pixel and chip dimensions. Type of image file formats, FIT/FITS format. Color definition in digital photography and pixel depth. File compression concept, vector and pixel file formats. Image formation with light, split image and lens cameras. CCD applications in astronomy.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST410 High Energy Astrophysics** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** History of cosmic ray physics and high energy astrophysics. Interaction of high-energy particles with matter. Relativistic and non-relativistic high energy particles. The damage effect of high energy particles to the spacecrafts. Detectors and telescopes for capturing high energy particles, X-rays, g-rays. High energies from Solar upper atmosphere and members of the solar system. Supernova remnants, stellar coronae, X-ray binaries. Background radiation and gamma ray bursts.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST412 Lunar and Solar Eclipses** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** Circumstances of eclipses. Umbral and penumbral structure and the length of the shadow cones. Ecliptical limits for umbral and penumbral eclipses. The Saros period. Basics of Bessel theory for Solar eclipses. Predicting the eclipses for a given location on Earth. The concept of eclipse zone and reading the eclipse maps. The scientific observations during the eclipses and key findings.

**Course Code and Name: ****AST414 Late Stages of Stellar Evolution** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 2 (2,0,0), ECTS: 4

**Content:** Process of star formation, interstellar dust and gas, the formation of protostars Pre-main sequence evolution. Post-main sequence evolution, main sequence evolution, late stages of stellar evolution. Fate of massive stars, stellar clusters stellar pulsation, observations of pulsating stars, the physics of stellar pulsations. Non-radial stellar pulsations, helioseismology. Degenerate star remnants, the discovery of the Sirius B, the physics of degenerate matter.

**Course Code and Name:** **AST416 Numerical Analysis in Astronomy II** (elective)

**Credits:** National: 3 (2,2,0), ECTS: 5

**Content:** Introduction, error analysis, matrices, finite differences, interpolation and extrapolation, curve fitting, series, numerical differentiation and numerical integration, Fourier analysis.